Category Archives: Tanzania

Mapping and analysis of the needs for petroleum related education in Tanzania

From: Yona Maro

Authors: Siri Bjerkreim Hellevik (Nordic Consulting Group Norway, NCG A/S), Farouk Al-Kasim (Petroteam A/S), Prosper Ngowi (independent), Harald Stokkeland (Sic International Consulting Ltd.) and Karen Sund (Sund Energy A/S)

Abstract: This study maps and analyses the needs for petroleum related education in Tanzania. This study represents an attempt to systematize the needs required at a detailed skills level, indicating gaps in demand and supply. The analysis is structured in a matrix that details skills needs at the professional and technical levels. The matrix is a useful tool that the government and the industry may use to plan for matching demand and supply of skills needed in years to come. Based on the findings, this study provides recommendations as to the type and level of education needed. There are many uncertainties as to the future as to the industry. Hence, the estimates given here have to be treated with caution and are likely to change as future decisions are made on development of the oil and gas sector in Tanzania.


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Tanzanian Woman Tried To Get Passport by Identity Theft

From: Abdalah Hamis

Tonight, 55 year-old Teena Isaac, a citizen of the East African country of Tanzania, is at the Belize Central Prison after she stole the identity of a Belizean woman and used it to try to apply for a Belizean passport.

The passport document would have been the last document she needed to get to fully assume the identity of Carmen Cantun. She already had a birth certificate from the Vital Statistics Unit, complete with all the information belonging to Carmen Cantun. It says that she was born in San Narciso Village in the Corozal District in July of 1966 and that she is supposedly the daughter of Cebastiana Cantun, who resides in San Narciso Village. This birth certificate indicates that it was issued on December 30, 2013.

She also has a social security card which looks authentic, with her picture in the location instead of the real Carmen Cantun. The work of the forgery is impressive; you wouldn’t be able to tell that it’s fake document if a public official didn’t tell you that it was. The social security card was issued 2 Fridays ago on January 3, 2014, and it expires on January 2, 2024.

So, when she went into the Belize City Passport office at the Charles Bartlett Hyde Building yesterday, everything seemed to be in order. She filled out all the application forms, and she produced the 2 prerequisite recommendations from the guarantors, under the new passport regulations. She paid the application fees, and her processing almost went through flawlessly, but the immigration officer got concerned when she was speaking to this woman claiming to be Carmen Cantun. She was being unusually quiet, and when she was asked certain questions, she didn’t respond.

The problem is that she didn’t understand the language that the officer was speaking in. Because the officer looked at her credentials and saw that she was supposedly from San Narciso, Corozal, she made an educated guess and addressed her in Spanish the entire time. She was simply exchanging pleasantries with the woman to get her to relax during the routine interview process. Because Isaac, pretending to be Carmen Cantun, didn’t answer, the immigration officer asked her to step into another room, and that’s when the officers started to press her for answers.

Under questioning, Isaac revealed that she understood English perfectly, but the officers picked up her heavy African accent. She also revealed that she was a Tanzanian national, that she had been in Belize illegally for over a year and a half, since July 22, 2012, and that she violated the visitor’s permit, which granted her a month’s stay in the country.

The officers continued to press her, and they eventually got a hold of her battered Tanzanian passport, which revealed her identity as Teena Iron Isaac, and that’s when the officers charged her with 4 different immigration offenses. She was charged with one count of using a document she wasn’t entitled to use for the social security card, another count for the birth certificate, a third count of falsifying an official document for the forgeries she made to the passport form, and failing to comply with a visitor’s permit.

She was arraigned before Magistrate Dale Cayetano this afternoon, where she pleaded guilty to all the charges. She broke down asking for leniency, admitting to all the forgeries she had perpetuated.

Magistrate Dale Cayetano sentenced her to pay fines to a total of $4,000 forthwith, which she wasn’t able to pay. She will now have the serve the default sentence of 1 year in prison. It is expected that the Immigration Department will apply for a removal order, and she will be deported back to her home country as soon as she serves the time, or pays the fine in the slight grace period most illegal immigrants are given.
Immigration authorities have just started to investigate the case, so they are not sure if the real Carmen Cantun is still alive, or if she has passed away. They do believe that for this level of forgery, Teena Isaac must have had inside help from the Social Security Board and/or the Vital Statistics Unit. The persons who signed for her as her guarantors are also facing investigation. One of them forged on the passport application form that he knew Isaac for 5 years, which is not possible because, as we told you, she was only in the country for 1 and a half years. Under new passport laws such offenses carry stiff penalties.

Tanzania’s power sector: TANESCO, EWURA, Millennium Challenge

From: News Release – African Press Organization (APO)

Jan 29 – 31 – TANESCO, EWURA, Millennium Challenge Corporation, OPIC and IFC to address the future of Tanzania’s power sector

EnergyNet’s Powering Africa: Tanzania executive meeting, will be held from 29th-31st January in Dar Es Salaam

DAR ES SALAAM, Tanzania, January 9, 2014/ — “With such a focused group of industry shapers participating at the Powering Africa: Tanzania meeting from the 29-31 January (, we can’t help but be buoyed by the possible outcomes of the debate.” Simon Gosling, EnergyNet.


As the World Bank agrees to support Tanzania to strengthen the country’s business environment, international investors flock to the country in search of credible partners, a deeper understanding of the requirement of entering the market and an eagerness to do business.

According to the International Energy Agency, sub-Saharan Africa will require more than $300 billion in investment to achieve universal electricity access by 2030. The US government’s “Power Africa” initiative, which includes Tanzania as one of six priority countries for investment, will commit more than $7 billion over the next five years in financial support to African countries in their goals to increase power generation.

The opportunities are therefore massive for Tanzania to transform its economy, create thousands of jobs and empower the youth of the nation to take the East African region profitably forward through to 2030.

Whilst both Kenya and Mozambique have witnessed increased investment of late, it is in Tanzania that the volume of investment is changing more rapidly compared with previous years. Managing this transformation appropriately will be the lasting legacy of the government.

Investment from banks and investors such as the World Bank, AfDB, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, OPIC, CADFund, CDB and USAID will provide the backbone of investment in Tanzania whilst the industrial sector finds its feet. Most recently the World Bank invested a further US$60mln to boost Private Sector Competitiveness and to fuel sustainable growth and support job creation; a key off-shoot of increased access to energy and power sector development, for which the Bank is also playing a central role.

EnergyNet’s Powering Africa: Tanzania executive meeting, to be held from 29th-31st January in Dar Es Salaam, will explore the importance of international partnerships in more detail, bringing together leading international players such as Symbion Power, Schneider Electric, Aldwych International as well as local stakeholders including the Ministry for Mines and Energy, TANESCO and EWURA, to create a credible platform to discuss the opportunities for investors in the country’s power sector. EnergyNet is delighted to have these hugely important organisations represented, further highlighting their commitment to Tanzania.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of Clarion Events.

For more information about Powering Africa: Tanzania:

Meeting name: Powering Africa: Tanzania

Meeting dates: 29-31st January 2014

Venue: Doubletree Hilton, Dar Es Salaam

Contact: Amy Offord – Senior Marketing Executive

Tel: +44 (0)20 7384 8068




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From: Yona Maro

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THE MINISTER OF STATE FOR COLONIAL AFFAIRS (THE EARL OF PERTH) My Lords, I have it in Command from Her Majesty the Queen to acquaint the House that Her Majesty, having been informed of the purport of the Tanganyika Independence Bill, has consented to place Her Majesty’s prerogative and interests, so far as they are affected by the Bill, at the disposal of Parliament for the purposes of the Bill.

My Lords, I beg to move that this Bill be read a second time. Once again, it is my privilege to bring to your Lordships a Bill giving independence to a Territory which has been under our care for a considerable time. This time, I think it is of especial significance because the Territory concerned is Tanganyika and it is the first of the Territories in East Africa. Tanganyika itself, as many of your Lordships know, is the largest of the East African Territories, about four times the size of the United Kingdom. It is also the most populous having some 9 million inhabitants, of whom a small part, about 150,000, are of races other than African, whether they be Asian, Arab or European. In the main, it is an agricultural country, depending on such crops as sisal, cotton and coffee, but there are large areas where agriculture is difficult because of the tsetse fly and the shortage of water. The only mineral deposits that have been discovered are diamonds and the Williamson Diamond Mines are producing an important addition to the wealth of the country.

All this does not dismay the Government of Tanganyika, who are shortly to embark on a new development programme about which I wish to talk a little more fully later. I just mention it now because it shows their determination to go forward for the wellbeing of their people; and I am sure that, despite the handicaps that I have outlined, they will be successful. I am all the more sure that they will be successful because from a business point of view conditions in Tanganyika are very favourable. The 733Government have always acted in a prudent and wise way and there exists that valuable thing, confidence in the country, and because of that confidence I am sure that they can rely on help coming from outside sources.

Our own responsibility for Tanganyika has been a short one, of only some 40 years. We took the country over as a mandated territory after the First World War and continued to look after its wellbeing until after the Second World War, when the United Nations came into being and it became a Trust territory. We have carried on with it as a Trust territory ever since. I am happy to say that there has been great progress during those 40 years. Of course, one can say that not enough has been done and that there is still much to do, but the progress has been remarkable. Thanks to the work of the civil servants, missionaries and others who have done so much to help, the country is provided with roads, railways, harbours, hospitals and schools. I have figures which show, for example, that in 1947 primary education was available to only some 120,000 children, whereas today it is available to 450,000 children, an increase of almost four times in the last fifteen years. I think that is a good record of progress. In regard to secondary and technical education, I know that your Lordships have been interested in the opening this autumn of a law faculty in the University College of Tanganyika at Dar-es-Salaam. Of course, if the Government of Tanganyika want more help from us on the technical side, we remain anxious and ready to give it and there is a Department of Technical Cooperation precisely for this purpose.

All this is not something on which the present Government are prepared to rest. They have worked out a new development programme for the next three years, largely based on a plan worked out by the World Bank. It is, in fact, something more ambitious than that suggested by the World Bank, and it is none the worse for that. One would expect them to do something even more. That development plan is calculated to cost £24 million, of which we have undertaken to underwrite up to £12 million, or half of the whole, and of that £12 million we are prepared to grant £8,750,000 under the old Commonwealth Development and Welfare Fund arid the balance under a new 734grant. Your Lordships will recall that this was all worked out in July when Mr. Julius Nyerere came to this country. The conversations were rather difficult and ran into trouble, but the final outcome, as I give it to your Lordships now, has been one which is fully satisfactory to the people of Tanganyika and I am very happy that we have been able to help their development programme in the way we have.

That is not the whole of it. We have also undertaken to make funds available for the Tanganyika Agricultural Corporation and for army development, by taking over certain stores, and by agreeing that the Colonial Development Corporation can put forward funds. Most important, perhaps, of the loans that we are prepared to make to help the Tanganyika Government is one to ensure the payment of compensation and other expenses for the Overseas Civil Service. While on the point of help for Tanganyika’s development programme, I should say how welcome has been the announcement made by the American and German Governments that they will play their part in making funds available for Tanganyika’s development programme.

I mentioned the overseas service. Without their help Tanganyika could never have reached the stage it has now. I am sure all your Lordships would join me in the tribute one would wish to pay to that Service. When one thinks of the Overseas Service, naturally one turns to the Governor and recent Governors of the territory. As your Lordships know we have one of them here to-day in the noble Lord, Lord Twining, who served the country before the present Governor for no less than nine years; and your Lordships know of the progress that was made during that period. I recall that .the noble Lord has written a book about the Crown jewels of Europe. But it seems to me that he has a jewel in his crown in what he has done to help Tanganyika forward which is at least as bright as any of those.

Then we have the present Governor, Sir Richard Turnbull, whose tenure of office in this exciting phase of constitutional development has been everything that one could call for and expect. The proof of that, if proof were needed, is the fact that the Government of735Tanganyika have asked that his name be submitted to Her Majesty The Queen as the first Governor-General of the territory. I am sure your Lordships feel with me that his well-doing and the trust that they have in him is shown by this action.

When I mention civil servants, I think it is very satisfactory that, so far, of those who are serving and who have the opportunity at a change-over like this of leaving the country, only a relatively small number, somewhere around 20 per cent., have indicated that they want to go to other fields. This shows not only that the Government and people of Tanganyika run their affairs well, but also—and I think this is important—that the arrangements we have recently made through the Overseas Services Aid Scheme have helped to ensure that these civil servants may stay and yet not suffer loss. Your Lordships know how vital it is at a moment of transition like this, until such time as the Africans are able to take over the running of their affairs, that they should have every help from those who have the experience.

This is, as I say, most satisfactory; and the main credit for it goes to the Prime Minister of Tanganyika, Mr. Julius Nyerere. No doubt many of your Lordships know him. He is a man of great wisdom and charm, very skilful in negotiation and, perhaps I should say, moderate in his presentation of his demands. The result of all that, and the peaceful way in which the country has been led to its present state, has been a natural one—namely, that one is predisposed to try to help him forward on the road that he has set. I think it is just because of the moderation and wisdom with which he has handled these affairs that we find that Tanganyika is the first of the East African territories to reach independence. Perhaps there is some moral in this, and, if there is, it may be that it will not be lost on others in the territories in that area.

Something which is perhaps as satisfactory as anything in the last years has been the real partnership between all of the races in Tanganyika. If your Lordships look at the present Government, you will find that elected Ministers 736and nominated Ministers are African, Asian and European. They have all pulled and worked together. It is invidious to pick out any particular names, but, having said that, I want to pay particular tribute to Sir Ernest Vasey, at present the Finance Minister of Tanganyika, and before that Finance Minister in Kenya. There is no doubt that East Africa, as a whole, and Kenya and Tanganyika, in particular, owe a great debt to him for what he has done in helping forward their economies.

I should now turn to the Bill itself, which names the day of December the 9th for Tanganyika’s attainment of fully responsible status within the Commonwealth. Happily, it has been announced that Her Majesty The Queen will be represented by His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh at the independence celebrations. I am sure your Lordships will not be surprised at the tremendously warm welcome that this news has received in Tanganyika.

I have expressed my regret that this Bill is being, as it were, speeded through the Houses of Parliament, but, as your Lordships know, this is often the way in the case of such Bills, because once the date has been fixed there is much work still to be done, and naturally the country is anxious to get on with things. There is a technical angle, in that until a Bill like this has been passed it is not possible to announce what may be the actual Constitution of the country. That is laid down by an Order in Council only after the Bill has been approved. So it is of great importance that this Bill should be passed quickly, and then be followed by the Order in Council for the Constitution; and that Constitution will, of course, be laid for information in your Lordships’ House or in the Library. It is not right for me to anticipate beyond a point just what will be in that Constitution, but I can say it has been worked out in full collaboration with the Tanganyika Government, and it has been agreed to recommend a Constitution which is broadly along the lines of the Constitution that Tanganyika enjoys at the present time.

Clause 1 of the Bill is in the usual form that these things follow for territories which are about to become independent. Clause 2 deals with nationality. Here, again, the form is very similar, for example, to what was done in the 737case of Nigeria and Sierra Leone. Clause 3 covers certain modifications of United Kingdom enactments which are necessary in view of the fact that Tanganyika is shortly to be independent.

Clause 4 deals with the Tanganyika Agricultural Corporation, and the fact that we are going to continue to provide the help which was promised to that Corporation even after the independence of the country. The Agricultural Corporation, as many of your Lordships will remember, is the successor to the groundnuts scheme of long ago. It took over the remaining parts of which use could be made, and has in fact over the years done a great service in developing not only what was left to be developed but in generally helping forward the agricultural well-being of the country. I know that the Tanganyika Government have in mind to continue so to use it. Lastly, in Clause 4. we have mention of the money under the Colonial Development and Welfare Funds which may be available. I refer to Clause 4 (3), for common services with other territories. What we have in mind there, of course, is the East Africa High Commission as it is known to-day, which, when Tanganyika becomes independent, will change its name, and certain of its functions, and become known for the future as the East African Common Services Organisation.

It is a source of great satisfaction that this body is to continue to operate and to continue to give common economic services to the East African territories for so many things which are of common interest to them all—for example, transport, communications, collection of income tax, customs and excise, and various common fields of research. The preservation of this form of economic unity, is, I think, a tremendous encouragement. The confirmation that they wanted to continue with all this came out of a conference in July, in which all the territories were present, and Zanzibar was an observer. It was a most satisfactory conference, filling one with great hope for future collaboration in that part of the world. As I need hardly say, if, looking beyond the economic side, the territories also wish to consider closer political association, the groundwork of that is laid. It is essentially something for the African territories themselves to decide, but this is a good 738move in the right direction, if they so wish.

It is a great pleasure for me to commend to your Lordships this Bill which will result in a new member of the Commonwealth. Tanganyika, of course, will be the youngest, but I am sure that she will prove to be one of the best. My right honourable friend the Prime Minister has heard from the Commonwealth Prime Ministers that they will be very glad to accept Tanganyika as a fellow-member of the Commonwealth as from the date of her independence—that is, December 9. This is both welcome and happy news, and I am sure that all the Commonwealth stands to benefit from her joining with them. I beg to move.

Press Releases from Ethiopian Airlines Flight ET-815 of 18 December 2013

From: Abdalah Hamis

Update 1 – 19 December, 2013

Ethiopian Airlines would like to refute all unfounded speculations regarding the incident of Ethiopian flight ET-815 from Addis Ababa to Kilimanjaro of 18 December 2013. Such unfounded speculations are against international procedure and practice of incident investigation and communications.

Although Ethiopian Airlines should strictly follow the international procedures and will not make pre-judgmental statements before the incident is fully investigated by relevant and competent authorities, there was miscommunication between the control tower and the flying crew, which resulted in landing at Arusha airport. The aircraft had adequate fuel to fly to an approved alternate airport.

All passengers and crew were unharmed and have been taken to their intended destinations. The aircraft did not sustain any damage.

Ethiopian Airlines would like to apologize to its esteemed passengers for the inconveniences caused.

Tanzania: Creating Drought-Tolerant Maize

From: Yona Maro

In Morogoro, a drought-prone area in Tanzania, farmers are using certified maize seed and urging other farmers to grow a new drought tolerant variety, TAN250, which they say is like “an insurance against hunger and total crop failure, even under hot, dry conditions like those of recent years.”


Facts: Tanzania hand-in-hand with The ANC and turn to armed struggle

From: Abdalah Hamis


Tanzania, situated on the eastern part of the African continent, was colonised by Germany in 1884 and named Tanganyika. However, the territory of Zanzibar, which consists of the two islands Unguja (Zanzibar Island) and Pemba, became a single British Protectorate in 1890. After the First World War, the League of Nations mandated Britain to take over the territory of Tanganyika in 1918. Leading African labour activists formed the African Association (AA) in 1927, but the body remained largely ineffective.

In 1948 the AA reconstituted itself as the Tanganyika African Association (TAA), which began calling for constitutional reforms that reflected African interests. The TAA criticised racial discrimination, calling for the Africanisation of the civil service and increased expenditure for educational loans. In April 1953 Julius Nyerere was elected the president of the TAA, defeating his rival Abdulwahid Sykes. On 7 July 1954, the Tanzanian African National Union (TANU) was formed in Dar-es Salaan and succeeded the TAA.

TANU grew in popularity in various areas of Dar-es Salaam, growing its membership in urban and peri-urban areas. The British attempted to establish systems that would protect their interests and those of the settler population, in particular by
organising an electoral system in the period from 1957 to 1958. When

Legislative Council elections were held, TANU won all the seats reserved for Africans, paving the way for the establishment of a popularly elected government. Other parties such as the African National Congress (ANC) and the All Muslim National Union of Tanganyika (AMNUT) – an alternative to TANU – were less successful.

In December 1959 the British government agreed to allow self-government after general elections scheduled for August 1960, but the country remained a colony. Nyerere became the chief minister of the government, but he had limited powers, as foreign policy and control of the army remained under the direction of the Colonial Office in London. In May 1961, Tanganyika was granted autonomy and Nyerere became the Prime Minister with full powers under a new constitution. On 9 December 1961 Tanganyika was granted independence and Nyerere became the first president. On 19 December 1963, Zanzibar also became independent, leaving the way clear for the unification of mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar on 26 April 1964 as the United Republic of Tanzania and Zanzibar. In October 1964, the country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.

The African National Congress in Tanzania

After taking power in Tanzania, Nyerere became one of the architects for the formation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and remained an ardent supporter of the continent’s liberation struggles. Tanzania provided facilities for liberation movements such as the African National Congress (ANC), Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU), the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), the South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO), FRELIMO and the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), and allowed them to operate from its soil. In addition, the Tanzanian government allowed the organisations to use Radio Tanzania to broadcast messages to their respective countries.

In the aftermath of the Sharpeville Massacre, the government banned the ANC and the PAC in South Africa. The ANC then sent Frene Ginwala to Tanzania with instructions to establish an office in Dar-es Salaam, and await further communication. Once in the country, she worked as a journalist while carrying out work for the ANC, which included receiving comrades arriving in Dar-es Saalam. Meanwhile, in 1960 the party instructed Oliver Tambo to clandestinely leave the country and establish offices for the movement in exile. He was also authorised to seek international support for the struggle against apartheid. Tambo skipped the country through Bechuanaland, in a car driven by Ronald Segal. Once in Bechuanaland he contacted Frene Ginwala, who made arrangements for a plane to fly Tambo, Dr Yusuf Dadoo and Segal to Dar-es-Salaam. Upon arrival they were welcomed by Julius Nyerere, and from that time Tanzania became an important point of contact and transit for the ANC in exile.

In 1961 the ANC and SACP launched Umkhonto weSizwe (MK) as its armed wing, and It became imperative to seek military training facilities in friendly African and East European countries. As part of advancing this idea Nelson Mandela visited Tanzania in 1962 to seek financial and military assistance to enable MK to wage the armed struggle. The meeting ended in disappointment for Mandela as Nyerere urged the ANC to postpone the armed struggle until the release of PAC leader Robert Sobukwe. Despite this disappointing response, the Tanzanian government facilitated Mandela’s travel arrangements by issuing him with documents to travel to Ethiopia and by liaising with Emperor Haile Selassie. Mandela notes in his biography that the Tanzanian government also issued him with documents which enabled him to travel to other African countries and Britain.

Establishment of MK Camps in Tanzania in the 1960s and 1970s

Despite the initial hesitancy, Tanzania allowed MK to establish camps as transit centres for cadres training in the Soviet Union, China and Czechoslovakia. In 1962 the first military camps were established by Tlou Theophilus Cholo and Joe Modise. The names of the camps were: Kongwa, which held the majority of MK cadres in Tanzania; Morogoro, which functioned as the headquarters of the ANC and MK; and Mbeya and Bagamoyo. Funding and sustenance for the camps came various sources. The OAU Liberation Committee assisted MK by paying for rent and associated expenses for offices in Dar-es-Salaam and Morogoro. In addition the Swedish and Norwegian governments assisted with more funding and technical expertise through various organisations.

During the 1960s several members of the ANC were deployed in Tanzania. For instance, after JB Marks was elected as Chairman of the SACP at its Fifth Conference held underground in 1962, he was instructed by the National Executive Committee of the ANC to join the headquarters of the External Mission in Tanzania. In 1963 the ANC sent Jo Matlou to Tanzania, where he was followed by his wife Violet Matlou and their children. They became the only complete family living at the Luthuli Camp. Later, in 1965, Ben Turok arrived in Tanzania after serving three years in prison and briefed Tambo on the state of the ANC in South Africa. That same year the ANC relocated its headquarters to Morogoro, but its main military training camp remained Kongwa.

Kongwa Camp

Kongwa Camp was established between 1963 and 1964 about 400km west of Dar es Salaam, with Ambrose Makiwane the first camp commander. This the first MK camp to be established in Tanzania, Kongwa housed MK guerrillas who had returned from military training in the Soviet Union, China, Egypt and Algeria. MK recruits from South Africa who continued to make their way to Tanzania during this period by and large ended up at Kongwa. Over time the camp developed the capacity to train cadres on site without having to send them to other countries for training. The Tanzanian government supplied uniforms and one meal a day for each soldier.

By 1965 the ANC had a total of 800 guerrilla trainees in Tanzanian camps, many of them stationed at Kongwa; while others were undergoing military training in China, the Soviet Union or Czechoslovakia. As the number of trained cadres increased, some began to complain about the lack of willingness by the ANC leadership to send them back to South Africa to fight. This frustration exploded when Justice Gizenga Mpanza and other cadres from Natal stole a vehicle and drove to Morogoro, the ANC headquarters, to table their grievances. On the way they were arrested by Tanzania soldiers who suspected them of desertion. After the intervention of the ANC leadership, they were released and reprimanded, and the group was relocated to Lusaka in Zambia. Several members of this group formed part of the Luthuli and Pyramid Detachments, which were deployed during the Wankie and Sipolilo Campaigns in 1967.

Apart from the frustration of not being deployed to South Africa, there were other problems in the camps. Commanders had to deal with ill discipline, men involved in sexual relations with women from surrounding villages, and accusations of tribalism, and had to mete out corporal punishment.

By 1973 about half of the cadres in Tanzania had been trained at Kongwa. During that period Ambrose Makiwane was redeployed from Kongwa to Cairo and replaced by Joseph Jack. After the fall of Portuguese minority rule in Mozambique and Angola in 1975, Tambo organised to move MK guerrillas from the training camps in Tanzania and Zambia to Angola, near the South African border.

The Morogoro Conference

Growing discontent in the camps and criticisms of the leadership of the ANC precipitated the Morogoro Conference. ANC leaders were accused of a lack of progress in advancing the armed struggle. Numerous trained cadres remained in camps and were not deployed to South Africa, resulting in incidents such as the Mpanza debacle. Moreover, many felt that although countries such as Botswana and Swaziland had become independent, the leadership had failed to use these territories, which shared borders with South Africa, to infiltrate guerrillas into the country.

Around the mid-1960s, the OAU Liberation Committee, which provided both financial and political support for the armed struggle, put pressure on all liberation movements to intensify their military campaigns. The ANC initially responded by sending some trained guerrillas for retraining, but this was not enough to placate those who were discontented. In response, a group of commanders and commissars sent a memorandum to ANC leaders accusing them of being out of touch with events in South Africa, precipitating a rift between the political leadership and military rank-and-file within the movement. Those who wrote the memorandum were suspended, but others continued to identify with their grievances.

Consequently, a national consultative conference was convened from 25 April to 1 May 1969 at the ANC headquarters in Morogoro in what became known as the Morogoro Conference. The conference addressed the issue of communication between members of the ANC in exile and those inside the country. A Revolutionary Council (RC) was established to integrate political and military strategy. The Conference also considered whether non-Africans should be allowed to become members of the ANC leadership. For the first time, the ANC membership was opened to members of all races, but only Africans could be members of the National Executive Committee (NEC). Subsequent to this decision, Joe Slovo, Yusuf Dadoo and Reg September were elected to serve on the RC. At the end of the conference the ANC adopted the Strategy and Tactics Document, which became the first major policy document adopted by the ANC since the Freedom Charter.

The expulsion of the ANC from Tanzania

In October 1969 Oscar Kombona, a former minister who held the Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs and Defence portfolios in the post-independent Tanzanian government, and others were charged with treason. Kombona was accused of working with the US’s Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to overthrow the government of Tanzania and assassinate Julius Nyerere.

The state’s witness was Potlako K Leballo, a founder member of the PAC, which also had camps in Tanzania. Leballo testified that Kombona had tried to enlist him and a co-conspirator. During the trail Leballo alleged that the ANC was also involved in plotting the coup. The Tanzanian government was enraged, and expelled the ANC from Tanzania. All ANC people were to be rounded up and sent to refugee camps, but ANC leaders such as Moses Kotane, JB Marks and Oliver Tambo resisted the move, contending that they were not refuges but freedom fighters. The ANC was forced to close its camps in Tanzania and evacuate its military personnel to the Soviet Union, with assistance from the latter.

The ANC moved its headquarters from Morogoro to Lusaka in Zambia. Although the party was readmitted into Tanzania between 1971 and 1972, the clampdown by the Tanzanian government damaged relations between the two. When Reddy Mampane was appointed as the ANC’s Chief Representative to the country in 1976, relations between the government and the ANC were still frosty. Despite this setback, South African refuges continued to arrive in Tanzania and their numbers swelled, particularly after 1976.

Tanzanian support for the ANC was not without qualification, and known communists such as Yusuf Dadoo, Joe Slovo Michael Harmel and Ruth First, who were also members of the ANC, were later banned from Tanzanian soil and forced to operate elsewhere, mainly Europe.

Education in Tanzanian camps: Mazimbu and SOMAFCO

Camp Mazimbu was initially established to accommodate and educate the children of South African exiles in Dar-es Salaam. Mampane notes that the Tanzanian government grew concerned about children ‘loitering’ in Dar-es Salaam. For the ANC’s Chief Representative, the task of finding a suitable place for the children became urgent. Initially the children were taken from Dar-es Salaam to a place near Morogoro, where the ANC owned some land. However, the site was close to a Tanzanian military base and the move presented a new set of problems.

Mampane and another comrade approached Tanzanian Regional Commissioner Anna Abdallah and requested a larger, more suitable location for the children. The central government granted the request by donating an old sisal estate with dilapidated buildings at Mazimbu. After submitting a report to ANC headquarters in Zambia, Mampane was instructed to build a school at the site. Oswald ‘Ossie’ Dennis, a civil engineer, and architect Spencer Hodgosn were engaged to make the place more habitable. In July 1977, work on the construction of the Mazimbu camp commenced. For the first group of students, life was difficult as there was no electricity or water supply. Water was sourced from Morogoro and delivered by a truck.

After the Soweto Uprising in 1976 and the subsequent crackdown on political activists and student organisations, scores of young people fled into exile. Many of them joined the ANC and went for military training under the MK, while others joined the PAC. Some students went to Tanzania, and were received by Reddy Mampane who then sorted them according to whether they wanted to join MK or further their studies. In 1977 the first group of young people fleeing the tense political situation in South Africa arrived at Mazimbu, and they helped clear the land for construction. Plans to expand the buildings to accommodate more people were set in motion. Although Mazimbu was designed to be a refugee camp, informal educational classes became the main activity, and after some debate, the ANC eventually agreed to establish a school. Formal teaching commenced in 1978 and Wintshi Njobe was appointed as the principal.

Nordic countries provided support for the construction of school buildings and on 8 January 1979 foundations were laid. Later that year students were able to move into the first completed dormitory. Because of the limited capacity, rooms were used as classrooms as well as places of accommodation. A crèche, nursery, and primary and secondary schools were established to cater for the growing number of children of various ages. In 1980 a primary school with Terry Bell as its first principal, and in 1984 the Charlotte Maxeke Children’s Centre was opened in Mazimbu, alleviating the problem of transporting children daily from Morogoro to Mazimbu.

Apart from construction work, Nordic countries extended their help to include skills training, construction, teaching and medical assistance. A hospital, named the ANC Holland Solidarity Hospital, was opened on 4 May 1984. Mazimbu was renamed the Solomon Mahlangu Freedom College (SOMAFCO) after Solomon Mahlangu, who was executed by the apartheid government. In 1985 SOMAFCO was officially opened by Oliver Tambo.

SOMAFCO was also the site of other projects. In 1980 the Vuyisile Mini Furniture Factory was established to produce chairs, tables and doors for Mazimbu. A garment factory, a welding workshop and a farm where animal husbandry flourished were also set up. As the political situation in South Africa began to change in the 1990s, the process for a negotiated settlement gathered momentum, and the ANC and other liberation movements was unbanned and exiles were allowed to return to their country. On 9 September 1992, SOMAFCO was officially closed by the ANC and Oliver Tambo handed it over to the Tanzanian government.

Dakawa Development Centre

The increasing number of refugees and the decision by the ANC in Lusaka to keep Mazimbu strictly as a place of learning precipitated the establishment of another centre. Once more, the Tanzanian government was approached with a request for land. Anna Abdallah, with permission from the central government, donated 2800 hectares of land to the ANC. An underutilised farm in Dakawa, 60km from Mazimbu, the land was used to meet the housing, educational, cultural and recreational needs of the refugees. The first people to move to Dakawa lived in tents until proper accommodation was built. Mary Thuse was appointed as the first Director of Dakawa.

With the other camps lacking capacity, new arrivals were mostly being taken to Dakawa, where they stayed until they enrolled for classes at SOMAFCO. The Ruth First Education Orientation Centre and a Vocational Training Centre were established. In addition, small agricultural projects were initiated and between 1988 and 1989 the garment factory in Mazimbu was moved to Dakawa. The Dakawa Arts and Craft Project, set up to allow space for creative expression, proved to be popular among the exiles.

After the ANC was forced out of Angola, those imprisoned for the 1983 mutiny in ANC camps in Angola were transferred to Dakawa. Their conditions were relaxed somewhat as they began to play an important role in the life of the settlement. Dakawa also served as a Rehabilitation Centre for offenders from the Mazimbu camp. For instance, in 1983 when a student from Mazimbu was convicted of attempted rape, he was sent to the Dakawa Rehabilitation Centre. This was also the case for four students found guilty of impregnating female students in Mazimbu.

Dakawa was initially planned to accommodate 5000 people, but by 1990, when the transition to democracy was in progress, it had only 1200 people. With the demise of apartheid imminent, the Dakawa Arts and Craft Project was transferred to Grahamstown in October 1992.

South African government responses

Countries that shared borders with South Africa bore the brunt of attacks by the apartheid government for supporting the ANC or MK operatives. South Africa employed a variety of methods to deal with its enemies: ranging from assassination, abduction, destabilisation by sponsoring armed groups, and economic strangulation. Apartheid state terrorism also targeted countries that did not share borders with South Africa but which were strategically important to the ANC and MK, such as Angola and Zambia. This clearly shows that although Tanzania did not share borders with South Africa, it was not beyond the reach of South Africa.

Thus, South Africa still posed a threat to ANC camps in various parts of Tanzania. One of the ways in which the apartheid government was kept abreast of ANC activities in Tanzania was through its network of informers. Reddy Mampane states that there were many enemy agents in Mazimbu and he was involved in arresting those that had been identified. Mary Thuse, the Director of Dakawa, also stated that both camps were infiltrated by government agents. In 1983 a political commissar who had risen through the ranks at SOMAFCO was revealed to be an apartheid government informer.

Various suspicious incidents pointed to underhand attempts by the South African government to kill activists in Tanzania. In one incident, the water supply for SOMAFCO from the Ngerengre River was poisoned, leading to the death of many fish in the river. The incident aroused suspicions of water poisoning and Tanzanian authorities were informed. After testing the water, it was found to contain a poisonous substance, but the perpetrator was never caught. In another incident, Siphiwe Xaba, an apartheid government agent trained to produce poisonous substances, was caught. He revealed how he had been trained and confessed to poisoning comrades.

SOMAFCO had a prison of its own, nicknamed ‘Alcatraz’, where suspected spies were detained for interrogation by the ANC Security division. Other suspected spies were taken to Quatro in Angola for detention and ‘rehabilitation’.

Fortunately, none of the ANC military and refugee camps in Tanzania were ever raided by South African military forces.


Tanzania functioned first as a springboard and holding site for MK cadres who went for military training in countries such as the Soviet Union and GDR. Several MK recruits who left South Africa in the 1960s through Botswana via Southern Rhodesia into Zambia ended up in Tanzania. From here they were transported to the Soviet Union before being brought back to the camps to await further instructions. Tanzania itself later became a site for military training and refugees fleeing political persecution by the apartheid government.

Even after the ANC headquarters moved to Zambia, Tanzania continued to play an important role for the ANC and MK in exile – until the end of apartheid. In recognition of the role played by Julius Nyerere in the struggle for the liberation of South Africa, he was posthumously awarded the Order of the Companions of OR Tambo in 2004.


Brenman, J, R, Burton, A &Lawi, Y, (2007), Dar es Salaam: histories from an emerging African metropolis, (Dar-es Salaam), pp.49-51.

Copinger Easton, S.C, (1960), The twilight of European colonialism: a political analysis, (London), pp.229-232.

Mwakikagile, G, (2010), Nyerere and Africa: end of an era, (Dar es Salaam), p.111-114, 334, 362-368.

In Conversation with Dr Frene Ginwala, from the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, [online], Available at [Accessed 12 October 2011]

Eriksen, T, L, (2000), Norway and national liberation in southern Africa, (Stockholm), p.231, 342

Callinicos, L, (2004), Oliver Tambo Beyond the Engeli Mountains, (Cape Town), p. 236, 315, 435

Sisulu E, (2002), Walter & Albertina Sisulu: in our lifetime, (David Phillip Publishers), p.325

Morrow S, Maaba B & Pulumani, L, (2004), Education in exile: SOMAFCO, the African National Congress school in Tanzania 1978 to 1992, (Cape Town), pp.115-118.

Sellström, T, (2002), Liberation in Southern Africa: regional and Swedish voices, (Stockholm), pp.142-147, 585.

Road to Democracy, Vol 1, pp. 482

O’ Malley, Camps In Exile (ANC), [online], Available at [Accessed 12 October 2011]

The Presidency, (2009), Tlou Theophilus Cholo (1926– ) from The Presidency, 27 March, [online], Available [Accessed 12 October 2011]

ANC, The ANC’s second submission to the T, RC, from the African National Congress, [online], Available at [Accessed 12 October 2011]The Presidency, (2005), Archibald Sibeko also known as Zola Zembe (1928– ) from The Presidency, 26 April, [online], Available [Accessed 12 October 2011]

ARCHIVES – Soldiers From Tanzania Help Defend Seychelles, Aide Says

From: Yona Maro

VICTORIA, the Seychelles, Dec. 30— Tanzanian troops are helping man airport and coastal defense positions after last month’s coup attempt by mercenaries, Maj. James Michel, the Seychelles Information Minister, said today.

Major Michel, who is also Chief of Staff of the Seychelles Defense Forces, said Tanzanian soldiers, who had been training the Seychelles Army since 1977, had ”almost all gone home” before the mercenaries attacked the airport on the main island of Mahe on Nov. 25.

”But right after the attack Tanzania sent combat troops and they are now supplementing our own defense forces at the airport and coastal defense positions to help us counter any future aggressions,” Major Michel said. ”They will stay as long as is needed.”

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From: Yona Maro

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Dear Colleagues

Once again, your lovely AIDS WEEK IN REVIEW publication is here. Take part of your time to read and know what is going on in Tanzania and elsewhere to end the problem of HIV and AIDS.

Don’t hesitate to share this copy with friends/others

Your feedback on what to improve, add or rectify will highly be appreciated

Thank you!

Perege Gumbo

P O BOX 33237

Read or d/l document


Writes Leo Odera Omolo In Kisumu City.

AS the Cecafa football tournament for this year is just coming to remembering, how it is all started in 1939. It was originally called Gossage Cup, named after an Englishman a colonial civil servant who worked in Kenya as the Commissioner for Community Development Mr Gossage.

Originally only three national football teams competed. These were Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda with the Isles of Zanziber and Pemba posting a team which later participated in the regional tournament in 1940.

For all those years the prestigious regional football tournament was being held on rotation between stadiums in Nairobi, Kampala, Dar Es Salaam and later on the matches were staged in Zanzibar. The winners were exclusively from Uganda and Kenya while Tanganyika and Zanzibar remained the underdogs every year without a win.

However, the tournament has expanded dramatically years after the end of colonial rules in the countries of East, southern and Central African regions.

The final matches used to attract the presence of the four colonial goernors of the region with reception of Zanzibar which was already enjoying semi-indpendent status as a British Protectorate under the Sultan asyyed assayed of Zanzibar who occasionally used to sit in the VIP podium with the three colonial governors of Kenya, Tangsnyika and Uganda.

Football matches were very popular thereby pulling huge crowd of people, particularly in Nairobi where the now vintage City Stadium was the popular venue. In Kampala Nakifubo Stadium featured in the games while Ilala Stadium in Dar Es Salaam host the games in Tanganyiks.

However, the Gossage Cup games changed face in November 1950 when a young, but highly talented Kenyan footballer suddenly appeared for the Tanganyika team. His name was William Nahashon Ong”weya {Ragwel] from Kobura Masogo sub-location in Kisumu district. Ong”weya learnt football games wile studying at Maseno high School and later joined the defunct East African Railways and Harbors corporation and was posted to work In the lakeside town of Mwanza. As a shed clerk.

He began his football career in Tanganyika by turning up in the local leagues where he played for the Railways. It was during this time when his talents caught the eyes of the Tanganyika national team officials who promptly included hi in the national first eleven team.

In 1950, William NAHASHON was among the the Tanganyika team players who represented that country at the end of the Zanzibar, but the following year 1951 he had changed position from the utility player [No 10} to that of inside right wearing [shirt No8].The tall and slender Kenyan produced the ball jagling style that that took everyone by surprise. The home team beat Kenya 3-2 and clinched the cup for that year. Tohisown credit Ongweya scored two of the three goals for Tanganyika to the excitement of everyone including the three governors, namely Sir Edward Twinning {Tanganyika}, Sir Andrew Cohen {Uganda} an Si Evelyn Baring of Kenya.nzibar. The excitement of the people of Tanganyika went a niche higher.

For the first rime, all the women Kitenge lassos produced by a Textile companies in Mwanza and Dar Es Salaam had the following printed words in Bold and capital letters .

In Kenya a famous guitarist W.W.Witts [ Owiti} from Gem Ulumbi composed a poplar song in praise of Ong”weya Ragwell. Saying the melody and lyrics that Wuod Kobura Ache lKende had joggled the ball and dodged all the teams before a capacity crowd including the four colonial governors. After retiring from the Railways service in the early 1960e, William Nahashon Ong”weya lived on in Tanzania, and died a blind man after poor health in 1980s. his wife has also Also died and buried IN Kano West and both

After the countries of East,Southern and Central African became independence in the early 60s, the annual football tournament was expanded from Gossage Cup to become Senior Challenge Cup. teams competing now in the tournament included Ethiopia, Malawi, Burundi, Tanzania, Zanzibar, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Southern Sudan.


Tanzania lures investors with 10-year tax breaks, sets aside land for cities

From: Abdalah Hamis

By RAY NALUYAGA, The EastAfrican

The government is also offering PPPs in land concession agreements, where a private company enters into an agreement with the government to have the exclusive right to operate, maintain and carry out investment in a public utility for a given number of years.

According to Ms Lemunge, negotiations are already going on between the Chinese government and that of Tanzania with regard to the development of the Bagamoyo port.

Established six years ago, Tanzania’s EPZA has seven industrial parks and 24 standalone single factory units not located within the zones, with EPZA declaring such factories special economic zones.

The parks and stand-alone factories have attracted a total capital of $1.15 billion, creating 26,381 direct jobs with annual export turnover of $357 million.

Investors who put their money in infrastructure development in Tanzania’s Special Economic Zones (SEZs) will be exempted from paying tax for 10 years.

The government has identified a total of 16,150 hectares of land for the SEZs — 10,500 in Bagamoyo, 2,650 in Mtwara and 3,000 in Kigoma — which it hopes to develop into cities, Grace Lemunge, investment promotion manager at the Tanzania Export Processing Zones Authority (EPZA), told The EastAfrican.

For Bagamoyo, located 50 kilometres from Dar es Salaam, the government has recently paid Tsh120 billion ($75 billion) as compensation for land acquired to pave the way for a satellite city, with a free port and an international airport.

“The authority has set aside 3,000 hectares for social infrastructure, such as residences, schools, hospitals and entertainment centres,” Ms Lemunge said.

Another 6,000 hectares have been allocated for industrial services and commercial infrastructure, while 500 hectares have been set aside for a free port and 1,000 for an airport.

Mtwara is an integrated project with land owned by the government through the Tanzania Ports Authority, that aims at supporting the Southern Corridor linking Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia and Congo.

It will have a free port, industrial, technological and tourism parks, as well as logistics centres targeting companies providing services to offshore oil and gas companies.

For Kigoma, where the land is owned by the municipal council, the government is seeking investors for construction of a port on Lake Tanganyika bordering Burundi and DRC.

The area, for which a feasibility study and phase one of the master plan have been completed, is to be developed into an industrial cum commercial complex that will be a trade hub for neighbouring countries.

“Investors are invited to develop Kigoma port, EPZ and SEZ industrial, commercial, tourist and ICT parks, warehouses, hotels, banks, schools, hospitals and housing estates,” said Ms Lemunge.

Investors will also be exempted from paying taxes and duties for machinery, equipment, heavy-duty vehicles, building and construction materials and any other goods of a capital nature to be used for purposes of development of SEZ infrastructure.

They will also be exempted from payment of corporate tax, withholding tax on rent, dividends and interest as well as exemption from payment of property tax for the first 10 years.

The investor is also entitled to an initial automatic immigrant quota of five people during the start-up period and thereafter any application for extra people will be submitted to the authority, which in consultation with immigration department will make the authorisation taking into consideration the availability of qualified Tanzanians.

The projects are to be executed in various forms of private-public partnership, which includes Build Operate Transfer, a financing arrangement where a developer designs and builds a complete project or facility at little or no cost to the government or a joint venture partner.

Then the investor owns and operates the facility as a business for a specified period — ranging between 10 and 30 years — after which he transfers it to the government or partner at a previously agreed-upon or market price.

Canada & Tanzania: Tanzanian accused human trafficker, found not guilty

From: Fatima Husenali

The wealthy Vancouver-area woman accused of human trafficking for allegedly bringing a young African single mother to Canada to be an unpaid housekeeper has been found not guilty.

Mumtaz Ladha, 60, was acquitted on charges of human trafficking, two counts of misrepresenting facts to the High Commission of Canada in Tanzania and misrepresenting facts to Citizenship and Immigration Canada.

Ladha was accused of lying to the young woman, whose name is banned from publication, and illegally bringing her into the country in August 2008. She was allegedly forced to work long hours without pay at Ladha’s West Vancouver home. Prosecutors had argued that Ladha lied to immigration officials in order to bring the woman to Canada illegally.

But Justice Lauri Ann Fenlon said the young woman’s testimony was not credible and the Crown did not prove that she was coerced into coming to Canada or working for the Ladha family. The judge added that Ladha had no reason to hire the housekeeper under the table, but said the complainant had a motive to lie.

The judge heard that the woman worked for Ladha at a hair salon in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s largest and richest city, and believed she was coming to Canada to work in a salon here. In 2009, the woman left Ladha’s mansion and went to a women’s shelter.

Tanzania: Planning for Gas, Oil Industry : Development

From: Yona Maro

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Planning for the Gas and Oil Industry for Rapid Socio-economic Development in Tanzania

Oil- & Gas Conference 2013 – Tanzania

The Mwalimu Nyerere International Convention Centre, Dar-es-Salaam

October 23rd – 24th, 2013


Honourable Ministers,

Permanent Secretaries,

Vice Chancellor, University of Dar-Es-Salaam

Excellencies Ambassadors and Members of the Diplomatic Corps,

Distinguished Participants


Chairperson & Distinguished Participants,

First and foremost, I must say I am humbled by those who decided to give me the honour to deliver a keynote address at the Second Oil and Gas Conference 2013, on the subject “Planning for Oil and Gas Industry for Rapid Socio-economic Development”. I know too well that there are many Tanzanians who have the stature and wealth of experience to play this role. I therefore take this privilege with profound gratitude. However, I must hasten to add that, the thinking on planning for the gas industry in Tanzania is a brain child of many people, both Tanzanian (in Government and outside Government) and foreign friends/ experts, as well as international literature on the subject. I therefore cannot claim full credit for what I am about to say. However, I take full responsibility for any errors.

Ladies & Gentlemen,

In terms of the structure of this address, my point of departure is to assert, before this august conference, that this is the defining moment in the economic history of Tanzania in the march forward toward prosperity. It is crystal clear in my mind that Tanzania today has a unique window of opportunity to realise the national aspirations laid out in the Vision 2025 (TDV 2025). I shall then move to the core of my address which is to provide an expose’ of the ongoing thinking on the part of the Government of Tanzania (GoT) in planning for the up-coming gas boom in order to accelerate socio-economic development of Tanzania. Specifically, I will be reiterating the vision for the oil and gas industry as articulated by His Excellency Dr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, President of the United Republic of Tanzania; the challenges ahead; and what it will take to realise that vision. I will also hastily indicate where we are now in planning for the orderly development of the gas industry. Finally, I will end my address with a few points of emphasis.


Distinguished Participants,

Recent discoveries of a significantly large endowment of natural gas in Tanzania, offer the country a window of opportunity of its kind to build up the country’s industrial capability, accelerate socio-economic transformation and realize the national aspiration to become a middle income country by 2025 (Tanzania Development Vision 2025). The revenues from these resources can be used to break the most binding constraints to growth identified in the Five Year Development Plan 2011/12 – 2015/16, especially power and transport infrastructure gaps (port, railway, road, marine, air) as well as irrigation and skilled human capital deficit. Indeed Tanzania does have a tremendous gas wealth at its disposal with 2.3 trillion cubic feet of proven gas reserves (Index mundi, 2013) and an estimated total of 42.7 trillion cubic feet of on- and offshore reserves (Ministry of Energy & Minerals, 2013; Reuters, 2013). A recent study by Oxford Policy Management (OPM, 2013) estimated that Government revenues through taxes and returns to the planned national gas company, will yield an impressive revenue potential of US$1-2 billion a year, equivalent to 2-3% of GDP.

Ladies & Gentlemen,

However, much as hydrocarbons and mineral wealth is intrinsically a blessing, it can easily become a curse. There are examples of such resources being managed well (efficiently, fairly and openly) and thereby contributing to remarkable improvements in wellbeing, as in Botswana. But there are also examples of where these resources have fuelled wars, as in Sierra Leone or the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), or led to widespread corruption and poverty as in Nigeria. Extracting non-renewable sources is, by definition, not a sustainable source of growth over the long-run, and it creates few jobs.


The source of either the mineral curse or blessing is three fold: (i) Natural resources extraction generate what economists refer to as “rents” (revenues in excess of the cost of extraction). In that regard, everything depends on who gets the rents and how they are used. The rents can be stolen (and frequently stowed away in banks or real estate abroad), lavishly consumed or invested. Therefore, a country can get more (or less) of the rents depending on its stock of expertise for mineral prospecting and contract negotiation; administrative and institutional capacity to manage public finances well and transform the rents into physical and financial assets as well as skilled human capital; extent to which local entrepreneurs participate in upstream and downstream activities; and the quality of governance, including the extent of transparency to reduce corruption. (ii) World market prices of natural resources are volatile and difficult to tell in advance what will happen in the future. Consequently, natural resource rents are equally unpredictable and thereby make economic planning, macroeconomic and budget management difficult, with mega swings in government spending. Rents can lead to boom and burst cycles in the economy linked to drastic rise and fall of commodity prices. The cycles can also be associated with an overvalued exchange rate that makes diversification and the associated job creation difficult, or wasteful public investment. Furthermore, the cycles can also be linked to unsustainable consumption that ends when the resources are depleted. Thus, the quality of economic management also has a bearing on the final outcome; and (iii) The non-renewable nature of natural resources raises issues of intergenerational equity, that is whether to spend a bigger share of the natural resource wealth by the current generation at the expense of future generations, or saving a proportion of the natural gas revenues for future generations and how those savings ought to be invested, including the options of establishing a sovereign wealth fund or investing those revenues in infrastructure development, education and health. Therefore, how the intergenerational issue is resolved also matters


Distinguished Participants,

Given its tremendous potential, the oil and gas sector stands to contribute to rapid socioeconomic development of Tanzania through: (a) revenues for the government’s development budget. However, the outcome critically depends on the quality of the investment programme; (b) domestication of the supply chain, which means provision by Tanzanian entrepreneurs of services involved, from the stage of mining the gas to delivery to local consumers and export; (c) power generation and development of gas-related industry (LNG, LPG, NGL, petro-chemical industry – fertilizers, plastics, pharmaceuticals, ethanol, methanol, allied services, etc); (d) technology transfer; and (e) build-up of domestic expertise in geo-sciences (geology; geophysics; drilling, production & reservoir engineering, geo-chemists, natural gas technologists, pipeline engineers, chemical and process engineers, gas metering), economists, as well as experts in managing production sharing agreements (PSAs), taxation, accounting & auditing, lawyers for contract negotiation & administration, and data management.

Distinguished Participants,

Considering limited financial, technological and human capital, Tanzania has little choice but to invite foreign companies to exploit the resources on its behalf and earn revenues through negotiated profit sharing agreements. Nevertheless, Tanzania will have to work on a sound and robust institutional framework for managing this wealth prudently. This may include creating an independently operating, yet state-owned oil and gas company similar to PETRONAS of Malaysia that will legally have to be involved in all oil and gas operations in Tanzania as a partner of foreign companies. As the shareholder the government would then be entitled to dividends and tax payments.

Chairperson, Ladies and Gentlemen,

In the world of business, some people can see major emerging trends (i.e. general directions in which situations are developing or changing), perhaps even predict them, but may lack the motivation or resources to act on them. Many business people may have the resources and intent to act, but are often in the unfortunate position of simply following the trends rather than surfing them. In the end both miss the trends!! Borrowing from Chinese wisdom: The person who catches the trend is strong, or perhaps their strength will master a trend; executing with force is a must to catch a trend. There is also an ancient Chinese saying that classifies how people react to, and the benefit they derive from, opportunities. The saying goes as follows:“If you are not aware, you will have no reaction; Late awareness, delayed reaction; Early awareness, advance reaction: If you know first you act first” (Yuann James and Inch Jason, 2008).

Ladies & Gentlemen

Following the same analogy, the discovery of significant reserves of natural gas reserves in Tanzania is one of the major emerging trends. As such, the time for Tanzania to know the trends, catch them, and act with strength is now. The trends that will shape Tanzania’s future, in the run up to 2025 and beyond, are potentially very large and laden with opportunities. The magnitude of benefits the country stands to gain will critically depend on how fast Tanzanians marshal their ingenuity to recognize and operate in the industries that natural gas promotes.


Distinguished Participants,

The Tanzania Development Vision 2025, officially launched at the end of 1999, laid out the country’s socio-economic aspirations to be realized in a span of 25 years (2000 – 2025). The thrust of the vision was to ensure that Tanzania becomes a middle income country (MIC) by 2025, characterized by a competitive, dynamic and semi-industrialized economy, whose citizens are well educated and enjoying high quality livelihood, peace, national unity, good governance and a per capita GDP of US$ 3,000.

Mr. Chairman, Ladies & Gentlemen,

In 2011 the Planning Commission did some analysis in order to gauge what it would take for Tanzania to become a middle-income country as envisaged under the TDV 2025. The study generated the GNI per capita that would have to be achieved by the year 2025 in order to reach the lower MIC threshold of US$1,026. It turned out that for the threshold to be realized, an average GNI growth rate of 8% in the next fifteen years will have to be sustained. Apart from sustaining growth rates above 8%, the country will also have to transform from a mainly agricultural economy to a semi-industrialized one. This transformation is expected to happen first by increasing productivity in agriculture, fuelling agro-processing and a sharp increase in the growth of the manufacturing sector. Second, improvements in the value addition chain will be required to trigger growth in the industrial sector. The structural transformation implies that there will have to be a drastic shift in sectoral growth paths. Specifically, agriculture growth will have to increase from 4% average realized for the period 2000-2010 to 6% through to 2025. Similarly, the growth of manufacturing will have to increase from 8% average for 2000-2010 and reach 13% all through to 2025.

Ladies & Gentlemen,

The structural shifts and higher growth rates required of Tanzania to graduate to middle-income country status are obviously a tall order, considering that the country is off-target on a number of vision targets, with only twelve (12) years to reach the end of the TDV 2025 period. Regaining lost ground will need, among others, aggressive industrialization drive, taking full advantage of Tanzania’s niches and emerging opportunities, notably the recently discovered natural gas reserves.


Ladies & Gentlemen,

His Excellency President Kikwete has already articulated the vision for the natural gas sub-sector as being “to utilize the windfall revenues from the natural gas reserves to diversify the Tanzania economy and create capacity for sustainable growth”. Furthermore, it is envisaged that this vision will be realized by ensuring that Tanzania gets maximum share of the revenue flows from the exploitation of natural gas & oil.

Dear Participants,

In the light of this vision, key aspects that are on the national planning drawing board for the development of the natural gas sub-sector in Tanzania, include the following:

(a) For the Pre-production stage:

(i) Building the country’s capacity for prospecting, writing and negotiation of contracts: This is absolutely critical to enable Tanzania to establish or confirm independently the volume of natural gas reserves that the country has and track and regulate production as well as well as revenue flows. Such information is needed not only for prudent contractual negotiation with foreign investors to ensure fair deals but also for proper planning of oil and gas extraction. As such, it will require building up a pool of experts with specialized technical skills and outstanding knowledge in taxation of petroleum products; writing good contracts /negotiation of production sharing agreements and joint ventures; selecting, appraising and monitoring projects; environmental impact assessment (EIA), as well as pricing of oil and gas (geologists, accountants/ auditors, economists, environment experts etc.);

(ii) Setting up rules for utilization, institutions for managing investment of proceeds, design of an appropriate tax structure that balances the interest of Tanzania and investors, as well as creating a critical mass of informed citizens to enforce accountability and transparency: The rules may include, among others, whether the whole amount should be invested, saved or appropriated between savings and investment; what projects or area of investment and where the investments should be made; and whether the returns from the savings should be invested or added to the savings.

(iii) Instituting a clear strategy to domesticate the supply chain: Focus is on building national ability of Tanzanian entrepreneurs to provide all services involved, from the mining stage to delivery to local consumers and export, to the extent possible;

(b) For Upstream Activities:

(iv) Use of natural gas: This entails weighing the alternative uses of the natural gas and striking a balance between domestic needs (for power generation, development of petro-chemical industries, etc) and for export; At this stage it is also important to think about what proportion of proceeds should be spent on domestic investment and what should be put away in a foreign fund, as well as where to invest domestically in line with national priorities under the TDV 2025 and Five Year Development Plan;

Dear participants,

(c) For Downstream Activities:

(v) Prudent utilization of windfall revenue from natural gas: How to avoid the negative macroeconomic consequences of exploiting natural gas (Dutch disease – by which key sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing will be destroyed if the shilling appreciates due to large inflows of proceeds from natural gas exports and thereby causes losses to exporters of agricultural and manufactured goods);

(vi) Investing in project design, evaluation and implementation capacity to ensure highest returns to selected projects to be financed; and

(vii) Putting aside proceeds in well managed and secured sovereign wealth funds, as well as investing in productive capacity: The objective is to ensuring that future generations benefit from exploitation of this non-renewable resource.

Chairperson, Ladies & Gentlemen

Status on Planning for the Orderly Development of the Oil and Gas Industry

A number of activities have been implemented so far in line with the planning approach described above. They include: Background studies to map-out the terrain; workshops carried out to learn international experience and best practices; Preparation of the roadmap for the development of the natural gas sector; Preparation of the natural gas policy; Capacity building centred around training of young Tanzanians in gas-related skills both within Tanzania and abroad. Work to develop the natural gas master plan is still underway.


Distinguished participants,

To avoid the resource blessing becoming a resource curse, macro-fiscal rules are indispensible. The size of the expected external revenue inflow is tremendous with estimations for gold, gas and nickel suggesting annual revenues of approximately US$3.5 billion or 15% of 2011 GDP in peak years of production for around 20 to 30 years (IMF, 2012); almost equivalent to one third of the national budget for 2013/14. However, Tanzania will have to consider the frequently observed high degree of volatility of resource prices and hence volatility of resource revenues. Those funds can thus be crucial to enable Tanzania graduate to middle income country status or cause substantial havoc while completely obstructing sustainable long-run development.

Ladies & Gentlemen,

As a consequence three key approaches must underlie the planning for the utilization of the revenues from the gas industry for rapid, but sustainable socioeconomic development. Firstly, the influx of those new foreign earnings into the Tanzanian economy needs to be tightly controlled and in sync with the economy’s and the government’s absorptive capacities (IMF, 2012). Simply “throwing money at the system with good intentions” is likely going to cause the Dutch Disease. At the same time spending higher revenues without sufficient absorptive capacities by economic agents will lead to highly inefficient expenditure and hence a waste of those means for development with devastating long-term effects;

Secondly, it is well-established that governments in developing countries play an essential role in investment in key sectors such as infrastructure. Those investments however extend over longer time horizons and frequently require on-going investment through government funds as the project progresses. In resource-rich developing countries a substantial share of government funds can originate in resource exploitation. This however exposes such countries to risks resulting from high volatility of resource prices. This in turn can render budgets and investment very pro-cyclical and thwarts continuous development. As a consequence, countries like Tanzania will need to utilize resource revenues while insulating crucial government investment expenditure from the aforementioned price volatility and also create stabilization buffers;

Thirdly, Tanzania must plan for intergenerational equity as to avoid spending the entire wealth on temporary higher consumption for the current generations in the short-run at the expense of future generations. At the same time, current investment in countries with high levels of poverty, yield higher returns than future investment assuming economic development trends remain the same (IMF, 2012). Consequently key policy questions surrounding saving a proportion of the oil revenues for future generations and how those savings ought to be invested, e.g. a sovereign wealth fund, will arise.

Chairperson, Ladies & Gentlemen,

Allow me to end my address by reiterating that Tanzania has now a unique window of opportunity to transform into a middle-income country within the next 15 to 20 years. Fortunately, most of its natural gas wealth is yet to be commercially developed which according to existing estimations is likely to take at least another decade (IMF& WB, 2013). Tanzania has thus sufficient time to devise a coherent gas development strategy, including a macro-fiscal regime that should maximize the benefits of its resource wealth while minimizing the potential adverse effects.

Tanzania cannot afford to act like the third servant described in the famous biblical narrative of the parable of talents (St. Matthew Chapter 25: 14 – 30). For the benefit of non-Christians, this is a story about a man who is preparing to leave on a journey and entrusts his possessions to his servants. He distributes his wealth among three servants, apportioned to them on the basis of their abilities. To the first he entrusted five talents, to the second two talents and to the third, one talent. The first two servants quickly set to work with their master’s money. The third servant did not invest his master’s money at all; he dug a hole in the ground and buried his master’s money.

When the master returned, the first two eagerly met their master, apparently delighted in the opportunity to multiply their master’s money. Both were commended as good and faithful servants. Both were rewarded with increased responsibilities in their master’s service. Both were invited to share in their master’s joy. The third servant came to his master with only the talent the master had originally entrusted to him. He did not increase his master’s money at all. This servant offered a feeble excuse for his conduct, telling his master that he was a harsh and cruel man, a man who was demanding, and who expected gain where he had not laboured. He contended that this was why he was afraid to take a risk with any kind of investment. And so he only hid the money, and now he returned it, without any gain. The master rebuked this servant for being evil and lazy. He took his talent from him, gave it to the one who earned ten, and cast this fellow into outer darkness, where there was weeping and gnashing of teeth.

The story line of the parable of talents calls upon we Tanzanians to grab the opportunity emerging out of the recent discovery of large natural gas reserves and act with force to transform this God given resource, into a blessing for all Tanzanians, both current and future generations. It also calls upon Tanzanians to do more than simply conserve God given endowments – rather, they are to help us flourish and grow to greater heights.


Philip Mpango (Ph.D.)

Executive Secretary – President’s Office Planning Commission

October 23rd, 2013


Chinese Embassy Requests its Citizens in Tanzania to Strictly Abide by Chinese and Tanzanian Laws on Ivory or Other Smugglings.

From: Abdalah Hamis

On November 3, 2013, The Guardian Newspaper reported that Dar es Salaam City police arrested 3 Chinese citizens in the city, and confiscated large amount of tusks on the spot.

The Embassy of People’s Republic of China in the United Republic of Tanzania felt shocked at this report that 3 Chinese citizens suspected of smuggling ivory were arrested by the police and is now in contact with the Tanzania side on this issue. The Chinese government has always attached great importance to the protection of wildlife, promulgated a series of laws and regulations, and set up a National Inter-Agency CITES Enforcement Collaboration Group (NICECG) mechanism.

Chinese State Forestry Administration has set up a special armed anti-poaching team. China leads the world on severe punishment in cases of wild animal protection violation including ivory smuggling and its products. It has also actively participated in international law enforcement cooperation to crack down criminal activities on smuggling and trade of ivory and its products. In February this year, the Chinese government carried out successfully Operation COBRA, a cross-continent joint special operation to combat illegal wildlife trade together with 22 countries in Asia and Africa.

H.E. LU Youqing, Chinese Ambassador to Tanzania, and the Chinese Embassy strongly condemn criminal acts of killing elephants and smuggling ivory, firmly support the Tanzania government action to fight ivory smuggling by law, and are willing to actively provide help. The Chinese government and police are ready to work together with their Tanzania counterparts to crack down on criminals according to law.

Majority Chinese citizens are able to abide by local laws in Tanzania and take part in legitimate businesses. China’s national image has been severely undermined by illegal or bad behavior of quite few Chinese. Chinese Embassy in Tanzania will, as always, require all Chinese in Tanzania, and those coming to Tanzania either for tourism or on business, to strictly abide by local laws and regulations, never involve themselves in illegal activities like the ivory smuggling, make joint efforts to safeguard the good image of Chinese in Tanzania and promote the China-Tanzania friendship and cooperation.

Tanzania oil and gas report

From: Yona Maro


Rex Attorneys

Tanzania’s upstream oil and gas sector
is currently enjoying a boom
experienced elsewhere in East Africa
following major discoveries of natural
gas by Statoil, Ophir Energy and BG
Group. These discoveries mean that in
2012 Tanzania’s total estimated natural
gas reserves quadrupled from 10 trillion
to 40 trillion cubic feet. Offshore gas
fields at Songo Songo and Mnazi Bay are
currently in the process of being
developed by Pan African Energy and
Maurel and Prom in conjunction with
the Tanzania Petroleum Development
Corporation (TPDC). However, despite
50 years of exploration activity,
Tanzania still has no proven oil reserves
and remains dependent on imported
petroleum products.
Key legislation and regulatory structure

The key legislation regulating the Tanzanian
upstream oil and gas sector is the Petroleum
(Exploration and Production) Act 1980 (the
Petroleum Act 1980), which vests title to all
petroleum within Tanzania and its
territorial waters to the United Republic
of Tanzania.
The large discoveries of natural gas have
prompted the Tanzanian government to
develop a Natural Gas Policy and Natural
Gas Utilization Master Plan. In late 2012,
drafts of both documents were in
circulation for comments from stakeholders.
These will supplement Tanzania’s existing
2003 national energy policy. A Natural Gas
Act is also due to be enacted during the
course of 2013. In relation to oil and gas, the
2003 Energy Policy states that petroleum
operations should be undertaken in
accordance with high standards for
environment, safety, health and product
quality; that environmental impact
assessments and environmental
management plans should be made; and
that regional and international co-operation
in exploration, development of
infrastructure, trade, database and capacity
building should be promoted.
Under the Petroleum Act 1980, the oil and
gas industry in Tanzania is regulated by the
Ministry for Energy and Minerals (MEM),
which sets industry-specific policies,
strategies and laws. The MEM co-ordinates
the TPDC, which regulates upstream
activities, and the Energy and Water
Utilities Regulatory Authority (EWURA),
which regulates downstream activities.

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The TPDC was established in 1969 by the
Tanzanian government under the Tanzania
Petroleum Corporation (Establishment)
Order (GN No. 140 of 1969). It is the
TPDC through which the MEM implements
its petroleum exploration and
development policies.
The role of the TPDC is set out in the
Tanzania Petroleum Corporation
(Establishment) Order as being:
to promote and monitor exploration for

oil and gas;
to develop and produce oil and gas;

to conduct research relating to and

develop the oil and gas industry
in Tanzania;
to manage the exploration for oil and gas;

to advise the government on petroleum

production data;
to undertake the management of

strategic fuel reserves; and
to undertake trading in

petroleum products.
The TPDC is also a signatory to all
production sharing agreements (PSAs)
entered into in Tanzania. The TPDC
monitors the implementation of PSAs and
advises the Tanzanian government on
various compliance issues.

Licensing regime

Rights to explore for and produce petroleum
in Tanzania are obtained by entering into a
PSA with the Tanzanian government and
the TPDC. Under the agreement, the
Tanzanian government grants petroleum
exploration and development licences to the
TPDC, which in turn engages the oil
company to carry out petroleum exploration
and production operations on its behalf.
Standard terms for the PSA, which are
negotiable, are set out in Tanzania’s
2008 Model PSA (MPSA) and the Petroleum
Act 1980. Applications for licences and for
entry into PSAs are done both through
licensing rounds and by application.
The initial period of an exploration licence
is four years, which can be extended twice
for a four and three year period. An
exploration licence normally consists of
60 blocks, although the Petroleum Act 1980
allows for the licence to comprise up to
200 blocks in special circumstances.
Moreover, more than one exploration licence
can be granted under each PSA in respect of
different areas.
If there is a commercial discovery, the TPDC,
as the registered holder of the exploration
licence, applies for a development licence on
the contractor’s behalf. The application for a
development licence must be made (subject
to certain permitted extensions) within two
years of the date that the relevant blocks are
declared to be a ‘location’, that is, an area (as
prescribed by the Petroleum Act 1980)
within which a discovery has been made. A
development licence is granted for 25 years,
with the possibility of an extension for a
further 20 years. A development licence
confers on the holder the exclusive rights to
carry on exploration and development
operations in the development area and to
sell or otherwise dispose of the
petroleum recovered.
Applications for exploration and
development licences must contain, among
other things, details of the applicant’s
technical and financial capability and its
proposal for the employment and training of
citizens of Tanzania.
Only an entity incorporated in Tanzania can
hold an interest in a petroleum licence.
In September 2012, the Energy Minister
announced a review of all the then current
PSAs to ensure that they are in the country’s
best interests. Additionally, the TPDC
delayed a licensing round for nine deep-sea
oil and gas blocks, originally set for
September 2012, until a parliamentary vote

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on the new gas policy takes place. These
measures have created some uncertainty as
to the future direction of Tanzania’s
licensing regime.

National oil company/state participation

Under the MPSA, the TPDC may elect at any
time by notice in writing to the contractor
to acquire up to a 25 per cent participating
interest in any development area by
contributing its share of contract expenses,
excluding exploration and appraisal
expenses. If the TPDC fails to pay its share of
contract expenses, the contractor shall bear
the TPDC’s share of expenses by way of a
loan, bearing interest at LIBOR plus 2 per
cent and reimbursable on a preferential
basis from the TPDC’s share of profit oil or
gas. The TPDC’s profit oil and/or gas share is
increased by the rate of the participating
interest and the contractor’s share is
reduced accordingly.

Fiscal regime

The fiscal terms applicable to upstream
petroleum activities in Tanzania are
governed primarily by terms of the
Petroleum Act 1980, the Income Tax Act,
No. 11 of 2004 (the Income Tax Act) and any
PSA entered into as set out below.

– under Section 81 of the
Petroleum Act, a registered holder of a
development licence must pay a royalty to
the government in respect of the
petroleum obtained from the
development area. Under Article 14(c) of
the MPSA, the TPDC agrees to discharge
this obligation to pay a royalty by
delivering to the government 12.5 per
cent of total crude oil or gas production
before any cost recovery.
Cost recovery

– under the MPSA, the
contractor is entitled to recover contract
expenses out of up to 50 per cent of the
volumes of crude oil or natural gas (after
deduction of the royalty) produced and
saved from the contract area in any
calendar year. Any unrecovered contract
expenses are carried forward. Operating
expenses are recovered first, then
exploration expenses and finally
development expenses. Contract expenses
incurred in any one licence area within a
contract area may be recovered from
production from a development area
within the same contract area to the
extent incurred before first production
from that development area.
Profit oil

– the remainder of the crude oil
and natural gas produced is shared
between the contractor and the TPDC on
a sliding scale that depends on daily
production rates for the prior calendar
quarter. Under the MPSA, for crude oil
the contractor’s take ranges from 30 per
cent when production is from
0–12,499bpd to 10 per cent when
production is above 100,000bpd. Crude oil
is valued based on the average price for
sales of the relevant type of crude from
the development area in the prior
quarter. The valuation of natural gas for
production sharing purposes is to be
agreed between contractor and the
government so as to give the contractor ‘a
fair return on its investment’.

– the contractor is subject to
income tax under the Income Tax Act at
the standard corporate income tax rate of
30 per cent. Deductions are not permitted
in respect of expenditure of a capital
nature that secures benefits lasting
longer than 12 months or is incurred in
respect of natural resources prospecting,
exploration or development. The Act
provides for a 20 per cent depreciation
rate for assets used in natural resources
activities. Under the MPSA, the contractor
is also required to pay an Additional
Profits Tax calculated on positive
cumulative net cash flow on a
development area basis.

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Customs duties

– under the MPSA, all
machinery, equipment, vehicles,
materials, supplies, consumable items
and moveable property imported for use
in petroleum activities can be imported
and exported free of all duties and taxes.
Subject to requirements to meet
Tanzanian crude oil demand, the
contractor can freely dispose of its share
of petroleum and export it free of export
duties and taxes.

– the contractor must pay the
TPDC an annual charge in respect of any
exploration licence ranging from
$4–16/sq km (indexed to dollar
inflation rates) depending on the period
of exploration. The annual charge for a
development licence is $2,000/sq km and
each year of the exploration licence the
oil company must spend a minimum of
$150,000 on the training of Tanzanian
Repatriation of profits

– the payment of
dividends is subject to a withholding tax
of 10 per cent save that payment of a
dividend by a company to a local
company shareholder with at least a
25 per cent ownership interest is only
subject to a 5 per cent withholding.

Local content requirements

Under the Petroleum Act 1980, applications
for exploration or development licences
must be accompanied by proposals with
respect to the training and employment of
Tanzanian citizens. Under the MPSA, the
contractor must implement such proposals
within six months of the grant of a
development licence. The contractor must
also ensure that the transfer of management
and operation functions to Tanzanian
nationals occurs within five years of the
start of commercial operations. Additionally,
under the MPSA the contractor is
required to:
give preference to the purchase of

Tanzanian goods, services and materials;
make maximum use of Tanzanian

service companies;
establish appropriate tender

procedures to give effect to local
content requirements;
maximise the level of usage of local goods

and services, businesses, financing and
employment of Tanzanian nationals;
ensure that sub-contracts are scoped to

match the capability of local
enterprises and manage risk to allow
their participation;
give equal treatment to local enterprises

by ensuring access to all tender
invitations and by including high
weighting on local value added in tender
evaluation criteria; and
employ Tanzanian citizens having

appropriate qualifications to the
maximum extent possible. In this
connection, the oil company must
propose and carry out an effective
training and employment programme for
Tanzanian employees in each phase and
level of operations.

Domestic supply obligation

Under the MPSA, if domestic demand
exceeds the TPDC’s total entitlement to
profit oil or gas, the contractor may be
required to sell its share of profit oil or gas
in Tanzania on a pro rata basis with other
producers in Tanzania (except the TPDC).
The Petroleum Act 1980 also states that a
development licence must include conditions
with respect to the duty of the registered
holder of a development licence to supply
petrol to meet the local needs of Tanzania.

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, March 2013, 35653

Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer


is a limited liability partnership registered in England and Wales with registered number OC334789. It is authorised and regulated by the Solicitors Regulation
Authority. For regulatory information please refer to Any reference to a partner means a member, or a consultant or employee with equivalent standing and
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or any of its affiliated firms or entities. This material is for general information only and is not intended to provide legal advice.

Transfer of interests

Under the Petroleum Act 1980, a legal or
equitable interest in or affecting an
exploration or development licence can only
be transferred or assigned, directly or
indirectly, by instrument in writing, and is
subject to MEM’s approval. This applies both
on a transfer of an interest and on direct or
indirect change of control of the party with
an interest in the licence. There are no
reasonableness requirements regarding
approval except that MEM shall give its
approval for the transfer of an exploration
licence when the transferee is a person
controlling, controlled by or under common
control with the transferor and is not
disqualified from holding such licence.
Under the MPSA, a contractor is permitted
to assign or transfer its rights, privileges,
duties or obligations under the MPSA to an
affiliate company provided that the
Tanzanian government and the TPDC are
notified in writing in advance and that the
assignment will not adversely affect the
performance of obligations under the MPSA.
The written consent of the Tanzanian
government is required if the contractor
wishes to make such an assignment or
transfer to a non-affiliated person, firm or
corporation (in whole or in part). This
consent must not be unreasonably withheld
or delayed. Moreover, as a condition of the
assignment, the oil company must provide
an unconditional undertaking from the
assignee to assume all the obligations of the
oil company under the MPSA.
Under the Income Tax Act 2004, any gain on
the disposal of an interest in a petroleum
licence will be chargeable income for the
purposes of calculating the disposing party’s
liability to income tax.

Stabilisation/equilibrium and
dispute resolution

The MPSA provides for disputes to be settled
by arbitration in accordance with the
International Chamber of Commerce Rules
of Conciliation and Arbitration. The
arbitration is to be held in Dar es Salaam
and the applicable law is that of the United
Republic of Tanzania. There are no
stabilisation or equilibrium provisions in
the MPSA

Chronological History of Tanzania

From: Yona Maro

Chronological History of Tanzania

1st Century B.C. Cushites from Ethiopia settle in Tanganyika.

2nd Century A.D. Agriculturists from Cameroun and Nigeria settle in Tanganyika and Iron Age Civilization develop.

12th Century A.D. Swahili Civilization established in Zanzibar and Coastal Area of Mainland Tanganyika.

15th Century A.D. Organized Kingdoms and Chiefdoms established in various regions of Tanganyika.

1866-1873 European adventure trips to Tanzania including the visit of Dr.David Livingstone.

1880 German Colonization of Tanganyika.

1885 Partition of Africa; German Rule of Tanganyika recognized by European powers.

1885-1905 Wars of Resistance against the Germans.

1890 British Rule in Zanzibar recognized by major powers.

1919 League of Nations decide to place Tanganyika under British Rule.

1946 Tanganyika becomes UN Trust Territory under British Administration.

1961 Independence of Tanganyika.

1962 Tanganyika becomes a Republic.

1963 Zanzibar becomes independent.

1964 Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanzania.

1985 President Nyerere retires from Office; President Ali Hassan Mwinyi takes over.

1992 Multiparty-politics re-established.

1995 President Ali Hassan Mwinyi retires and President Benjamin William Mkapa takes over.

Tanzania is the cradle of mankind, for it was here in the Olduvai Gorge that Dr. Louis Leakey discovered the fossilized remains of Zinjanthropus calculated to be 1.75 million years old, the forerunner of modern man. South of Olduvai Gorge, a trail of hominid foot prints 3,600,000 years ago were discovered at Laoteli only 30 kilometers from Olduvai Gorge.

Tanzania is home of about 126 African tribes, the majority being of Bantu origin who migrated into Tanzania from West and Central Africa. While in Tanzania, they assimilated most of the people of Khoisan and Cushitic origin who had been there since the 3rd and 1st centuries BC respectively. Very few groups of people of these origins (Khoisan and Cushitic) remain in Tanzania today.

Besides peoples of Bantu, Cushitic and Khoisan origin, there are also groups of Nilotic origin the most famous being the Maasai. These are said to have settle in Tanzania in the 1st century AD. On the other hand, the Ngoni tribe, fleeing from “mfecane” (the times of troubles) brought about by the Zulu expansion under their famous King, Shaka, entered southwestern Tanzania in 1840 and defeated the Fipa who moved to northwestern Tanzania.

Arabian merchants visited the Tanzanian Coast 2000 years ago and later settled in Zanzibar around 7th century AD. They established trade routes into the interior and in so doing helped to spread the Arab influenced culture and language of the coast : Swahili culture and language.

The Portuguese established temporary settlements in the 16th century, and a relic of a Portuguese Fort, “Geresa” built in 1505 is in Kilwa. In the late 17th century, however, the Portuguese were supplanted by the Omanis who established trade in ivory and slaves. Ivory was in great demand in India, where married women were expected to wear ivory bangles which were buried with them when they died. Ivory trade was also established in the 18th century with Japan where it was required for production of “netsukes” (ivory buttons used to suspend objects from a belt). Slaves were used to carry ivory to the coast but were also required for clove plantations in Zanzibar and in sugar plantations in Mauritius. Other slaves were exported to the Persian Gulf, Europe and Americas.

The scramble for Africa by the European powers at the end of the 19th century led to the occupation of the mainland by Germany despite resistance by leaders such as Abushiri of Pangani, Mkwawa of Iringa, and Kinjeketile of Rufiji. The latter led the famous Maji maji uprising of July 1905. Zanzibar became a British Protectorate. After World War I, Germany was forced to surrender mainland Tanzania to British rule. The mainland (then known as Tanganyika) became independent in 1961 and Zanzibar in 1963. In 1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar united to form United Republic of Tanzania.

Contact with China and Japan
From 1000 A.D., a considerable amount of trade went on between China, Persia and Tanzania Coastal Areas. Much exchange took place with India until after 1500 A.D. when Chinese merchant ships reached East African Coast. Chinaware of 700 years ago have been excavated in Kilwa,

Tanzania bearing evidence that the Tanzania Coast was once part of a developed culture that boomed along the Indian Ocean Coast. As stated above, ivory from Tanzania was also exported to Japan around this period.

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Tanzania issues a Travel Advisory !!!!

From: Maurice Oduor

First when I started reading this story, I thought it was a serious one. After the first paragraph, I realized it was a joke. How can one warn the wildebeests from crossing into Kenya? eti Kenya’s security situation is worrisome !!!

Read it and see what I mean:

Tanzania issues travel advisory to Kenya
Updated Friday, October 25th 2013 at 22:18 GMT


Following the rising levels of insecurity in the country, the government of the United Republic of Tanzania has issued a travel advisory warning the wildebeests intending to migrate from the Serengeti National Park to the Maasai Mara Game Reserve. The Tanzanian government warned that it couldn’t assure them of security. The wildebeests migrate seasonally from the Serengeti to the Maasai Mara, in search of pastures. It is feared the directive is likely to disrupt the travel plans for tens of thousands of them.

Security threats

While issuing the travel advisory, the Tanzanian government claimed that Kenya faces considerable security threats, and therefore it was left with no choice but — to do what is within its powers — to protect the lives of all the life within its borders. “While our major concern is the wildebeests, since they comprise the majority of visitors from our country to Kenya, we may revise that in the future to include more species,” James Bukuku the Tanzanian minister for Migration explained.

The travel advisory is likely to strain the relationship between Kenya and Tanzania, especially since both have not only been engaging in some sort of regional supremacy war, but also getting involved in endless trade disputes.


If the retaliatory acts that follows after every trade dispute are anything to go by, it remains to be seen what measures Kenya might take other than perhaps returning the favour. It is suspected that Kenya might hit back by issuing retaliatory travel advisories in which it will —very likely — urge stray dogs that might decide to cross the border to Tanzania for bones and squirrels scavenging for nuts to do so at their own risk!

But Tanzania‘s travel advisory is not alone in the neighbourhood. Other neighbours who have also issued ‘sector-specific‘ travel advisories include Uganda and Ethiopia.

In the case of Uganda, the travel warning is aimed at its citizens who engage in cross border cattle rustling. It advised them against crossing over to the Kenyan side to avoid putting their security and safety at risk. “We urge all our hardworking cattle rustlers to pause and think and stop coveting the cattle across the border however fat they are!” Rogers Mugisha — the Ugandan minister for Public Safety, Order, Teargas and Walking to Work — is reported to have said at a press conference.

Ethiopia, on the other hand, has communicated a travel warning to the Oromo Liberation Front urging them to avoid crossing over to the Kenyan side over security concerns.


The Oromo Liberation Front is known to sporadically stroll into the Kenyan side where they raid Kenyan villages. “Before you decide to take a walk to the Kenyan side to plunder and loot, consider your security first and stay in your country where it is much safer,” Meles Tesfaye, an Ethiopian government official, is reported to have said.

It is also understood that various other African countries have urged their human traffickers to avoid using Kenya as a transit point, owing to the security situation. This now means that police officers who are constantly nabbing foreigners who can neither speak English nor Swahili, can breathe a sigh of relief. This is because the problem of having to find translators is gone for the time being.

Drug traffickers from the west side of the continent have not been spared either. Those who may be planning to travel to Kenya on business have been urged not to worry so much about being nabbed with narcotics, but worry more about their safety and security.

Uranium Ore Tempts Tanzania to Dig Dangerously

From: Abdalah Hamis


Though many consider the risks incalculable, Tanzania is planning to mine its radioactive uranium. A history of gold mining shows that the country, its people and abundant wildlife stand to gain little from doing so.

Not far from Tanzania’s capital of Dodoma is the rural area of Bahi. The small village in the heart of the country on Africa’s coast, though, is sitting on a proverbial “gold mine,” one that has raised eyebrows at both the national and international levels: uranium. Tanzania has been carrying out exploratory drilling operations for a number of years so that it might soon begin the real business of uranium mining. People who live in Bahia, however, have reacted to the drilling with skepticism.

Anthony Lyamunda wants to protect Tanzanian’s from harm

For Anthony Lyamunda, the local population is not involved as part of the discussion. Lyamunda is the director of the CESOPE, an NGO devoted to empowering local Tanzanians by providing education and information about their legal rights.

“We still don’t know where that money’s supposed to go,” he told DW, adding that he has little hope that much of what will be gained from drilling in the region will end up in the hands of the people living there – particularly given the country’s experience with gold.

“That was a long time ago, when we began mining for gold in Tanzania. Has the land developed in any way since then?” He asked, adding that the general population continues to live in poverty. “What miracle has to happen now for us to finally become rich through uranium mining?”

Incalculable risks

Uranium, a radioactive element, is sought after around the world over. It is used in nuclear medical treatments, is essential for the production of nuclear energy and is also used in nuclear weapons.

Roughly .72 percent of “normal” uranium will be the weapons-grade uranium-235 isotope

Though Tanzania’s government appears determined to take part in the lucrative mining business, German parliamentarian Ute Koczy has called for a worldwide ban of uranium mining. Her party, the Greens, has been promoting an end to nuclear power for decades, saying that nuclear energy carries incalculable risks. In Bahi, Koczy visited exploratory drilling sights back in 2010 and has been following the developments since then.

“My view is that you should not mine uranium, and that you should just leave the material in the soil whenever possible,” she told DW.

Koczy recalled the risks of nuclear energy, pointing to the nuclear reactor catastrophes in Chernobyl and Fukushima. But she also said there were potential safety risks in Tanzania, which are high during the mining of radioactive ore. Uranium’s utility for Tanzania itself is very limited, Koczy said. The German parliamentarian criticized the fact that the large majority of mining licenses have gone to foreign firms, with the public having no oversight as to the profits secured by these companies.

Tanzanian Minister of Energy and Minerals Sospeter Muhongo views the future brightly, though. For workers, safety risks will not be an issue, he said.

“Through the advances made in nuclear technology, we can take care of ourselves and guarantee that people near the mine will not be affected by radioactivity from uranium,” he told DW. He added that Tanzania already has a nuclear regulatory authority in place, the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, which will ensure that international standards are maintained.

Beyond uranium mining, the park has received criticism for elephant poaching and a planned hydroelectric dam

Compromise or carte blanche?

Further south, there are also uranium deposits. There, the majority of the deposits reside in an area unpopulated by humans but well populated by animals. The Selous Game Reserve is one of Africa’s largest contiguous wildlife sanctuaries and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Yet even here, a compromise was made: UNESCO allowed Tanzania to reduce the size of the park in order to preclude illegal mining – and at the same time avoid losing UNESCO World Heritage status.

Christof Schenck considers that the least-bad option. The director of the Frankfurt Zoological Society oversees a project aimed at protecting the park and knows the area well. For Schenk, though, the relatively poor country has a legitimate interest in developing the new source of income, since just a small area of the park is to be affected by it.

But he said he worries whether Tanzania will take the appropriate safety precautions. “How will water sources in the area be affected? And how can you recognize early enough if dangerous materials end up in the environment?” he asked in an interview with DW. In order to avoid large-scale environmental damage, Schenck called for an alarm system that meets international standards – as well as pre-emptive studies.

How would those at the Selous Game Park if the waters were radioactive?

In southern Tanzania, the uranium is thick and close to the earth’s surface. That brings yet another danger: A gust of wind can blow uranium dust from surface mining operations and into the surrounding landscape.

For CESOPE director Lyamunda and his organization further north in Bahi, the issue is clear: The best thing would be for Tanzania to desist entirely from mining uranium. His group is not alone in that opinion. At a conference in Tanzania that took place in early October, his call was supported by the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War and the Germany-based Rosa Luxemburg Foundation.

Only by keeping away from the substance altogether, the groups argue, can another risk be avoided: that of uranium falling into the wrong hands and then utilized for the construction of nuclear weapons.

Tanzania issues travel advisory to Kenya

From: Abdalah Hamis


Following the rising levels of insecurity in the country, the government of the United Republic of Tanzania has issued a travel advisory warning the wildebeests intending to migrate from the Serengeti National Park to the Maasai Mara Game Reserve. The Tanzanian government warned that it couldn’t assure them of security. The wildebeests migrate seasonally from the Serengeti to the Maasai Mara, in search of pastures. It is feared the directive is likely to disrupt the travel plans for tens of thousands of them.

Security threats

While issuing the travel advisory, the Tanzanian government claimed that Kenya faces considerable security threats, and therefore it was left with no choice but — to do what is within its powers — to protect the lives of all the life within its borders. “While our major concern is the wildebeests, since they comprise the majority of visitors from our country to Kenya, we may revise that in the future to include more species,” James Bukuku the Tanzanian minister for Migration explained.

The travel advisory is likely to strain the relationship between Kenya and Tanzania, especially since both have not only been engaging in some sort of regional supremacy war, but also getting involved in endless trade disputes.


If the retaliatory acts that follows after every trade dispute are anything to go by, it remains to be seen what measures Kenya might take other than perhaps returning the favour. It is suspected that Kenya might hit back by issuing retaliatory travel advisories in which it will —very likely — urge stray dogs that might decide to cross the border to Tanzania for bones and squirrels scavenging for nuts to do so at their own risk!

But Tanzania‘s travel advisory is not alone in the neighbourhood. Other neighbours who have also issued ‘sector-specific‘ travel advisories include Uganda and Ethiopia.

In the case of Uganda, the travel warning is aimed at its citizens who engage in cross border cattle rustling. It advised them against crossing over to the Kenyan side to avoid putting their security and safety at risk. “We urge all our hardworking cattle rustlers to pause and think and stop coveting the cattle across the border however fat they are!” Rogers Mugisha — the Ugandan minister for Public Safety, Order, Teargas and Walking to Work — is reported to have said at a press conference.

Ethiopia, on the other hand, has communicated a travel warning to the Oromo Liberation Front urging them to avoid crossing over to the Kenyan side over security concerns.


The Oromo Liberation Front is known to sporadically stroll into the Kenyan side where they raid Kenyan villages. “Before you decide to take a walk to the Kenyan side to plunder and loot, consider your security first and stay in your country where it is much safer,” Meles Tesfaye, an Ethiopian government official, is reported to have said.

It is also understood that various other African countries have urged their human traffickers to avoid using Kenya as a transit point, owing to the security situation. This now means that police officers who are constantly nabbing foreigners who can neither speak English nor Swahili, can breathe a sigh of relief. This is because the problem of having to find translators is gone for the time being.

Drug traffickers from the west side of the continent have not been spared either. Those who may be planning to travel to Kenya on business have been urged not to worry so much about being nabbed with narcotics, but worry more about their safety and security.

IFJ Raises Concerns About Deteriorating Situation of Press Freedom in Tanzania

From: Abdalah Hamis

The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) has today raised serious concerns about the deteriorating situation of press freedom in Tanzania, following the decision of the East African country to ban two widely-read newspapers.

According to independent sources and news reports, on 27 September the Tanzanian government took the decision to ban the Mwananchi (citizen in Kiswahili language) newspaper for 14 days and Mtanzania newspaper for 90 days. The decision was confirmed by the Information Services Director, Mr. Assah Mwambene.

“We are seriously worried by the Tanzanian government’s decision. Banning a newspaper means preventing journalists from providing news to the public. This is a press freedom abuse which must not be taken for granted,” said Gabriel Baglo, IFJ Africa director. “The authorities in Tanzania must re-open the two newspapers and promote press freedom”.

The official reason given for the decision is that the two newspapers were carrying stories “which were likely to force citizens to mistrust their government”. According to the government, Mwananchi has published several stories based on official documents not to be released to the public, while Mtanzania has published stories focusing on violence.

The IFJ believes that journalists in Tanzania are mature enough not to promote unethical standards in their daily work. It has stated that there is nothing to prevent the government from engaging in discussions with journalists and media practitioners to develop a more efficient and responsible way of working. The truth is that the Tanzania government continues to repress the right to media freedom in the country at a time when other African countries are making great efforts to improve freedom of expression.

The IFJ has questioned the decision of the Tanzanian government and stated that these are not the actions of a country that is respectful of the rule of law. In July last year the weekly newspaper, MwanaHalisi was banned. No decision to reopen it has been yet taken. While In September 2012, Daudi Mwangosi, who worked for Channel Ten as a TV reporter, died after being struck by a tear gas canister as police dispersed a crowd at a rally staged by an opposition political party ,Chadema cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party for Democracy and Progress). Until now there has been no justice for him and his family.

In December last year, Tanzanian police shot and wounded the journalist Shabani Matutu at his house in the capital city Dar-es-Salaam, and Issa Ngumba, a 45- year old radio journalist who worked for a community radio station Radio Kwizera in western Tanzania, was found dead on January 8 this year. He appeared to have been hanged by unknown assailants.

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Tanzania; Africa; Press Freedom; Press Release